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Near-Surface Geophysics Research Group

The Near-Surface Geophysics Group uses geophysical field studies and theoretical numerical experiments to address a wide range of geological, hydrogeological, and volcanological questions. Our common focus as a group is the suite of geophysical methods we use: ground penetrating radar, resistivity, electromagnetics, magnetics, gravity, near-surface seismics, SP, and others. Our studies range in scale from centimeters (for example high-resolution imaging of reinforcing bars in concrete) to more regional studies of fault and volcano structure. We currently have a strong focus on “holes in the ground” - namely lava tubes, sinkholes, and buried utilities.

 
Top left: Sarah Kruse, Top middle: Christine Downs, Top right: Sajad Jazayeri, Bottom left: Sanaz Esmaeili, Bottom right: Tonian Robinson

Selected Research Projects

  • Lava tube imaging: PhD student Sanaz Esmaeili and post-doc Sajad Jazayeri are working with the NASA TubeX team*. We are comparing GPR resolution capabilities for lava tubes against terrestrial laser scanning, helping develop a strategy for the exploration of lava tube and pit-rich environments, and creating a library of lava tube GPR images. Post-doc Christine Downs will create 3D animations for tube visualization. Recovering void floor geometry is challenging in this extremely heterogeneous environment. Undergrads Puneet Singh, Soraya Alfred, and Kathleen Grady-Weil are contributing to this project. (* Kelsey Young, Brent Garry, Patrick Whelley, Ernie Bell, Jacob Richardson)

    Skull Cave, Lava Beds National Monument, Sarah Kruse on top for scale.

    S. Esmaeili, S. Kruse, S. Jazayeri, P. Whelley, E. Bell, J. Richardson, W. B. Garry, K. Young. (–). Resolution of Lava Tubes with Ground Penetrating Radar: TubeX project. In: Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets. In Review.

    S. Esmaeili, S. Jazayeri, S. Kruse, P. Whelley, E. Bell, J. Richardson, W. B. Garry, K. Young. (2019). Optimizing ground penetrating radar (GPR) Imaging of Lava Tubes: TubeX results on full waveform imaging and exploration strategies, AGU Fall Meeting 2019, San Francisco.

    Bell, E., Schmerr, N., Young, K., Whelley, P., Garry, W., Kruse, Esmaeili, S. & Jazayeri, S. (2018, March). Characterization of Lava Tubes with Magnetometry. In Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (Vol. 49).

    Esmaeili, S., Kruse, S., Garry, W. B., Whelley, P., Young, K., Jazayeri, S., Bell, E. & Paylor, R. (2017, December). Resolution of lava tubes with ground penetrating radar: preliminary results from the TubeX project. In AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts.

    Esmaeili, S., Kruse, S., Garry, W. B., Whelley, P., Young, K., Jazayeri, S., & Bell, E. (2018, December). Migration of ground penetrating radar (GPR) data to image the floor of lava tubes; TubeX project. In AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts.

    Esmaeili, S., Kruse, S., Garry, W. B., Whelley, P., Young, K., Jazayeri, S., & Bell, E. (2018, December). GPR imaging of lava tubes with the TubeX project. In AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts.

    Whelley, P., Garry, W. B., Young, K., Kruse, S., Esmaeili, S., Bell, E., & Paylor, R. (2017b, December). Visualizing lava flow interiors with LiDAR. In AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts.

    Young, K. E., Whelley, P. L., Kruse, S., Esmaeili, S., Jazayeri, S., Bell, E., & Schmerr, N. (2018, March). Using GPR, LiDAR, Magnetometry, and In Situ Geochemistry to Develop a Strategy for the Exploration and Characterization of Lava Tubes. In Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (Vol. 49).

    Young, K. E., Whelley, P., Kruse, S., Esmaeili, S., Jazayeri, S., Garry, W. B., 957 Bell, E., Richardson, J. A., Bleacher, J. E. & Schmerr, N. C. (2018, December). Developing a Strategy for Lava Tube Exploration by Deploying Field Portable Instrumentation in an Analog Environment. In AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts.



  • Sinkhole subsidence processes: PhD student Tonian Robinson is working on this NSF-funded collaborative project. Shimon Wdowinski (FIU) and Talib Oliver-Cabrera (FIU), and Boya (Paul) Zhang (FIU), have shown that subsidence of persistent scatterers (roof tops, road beds) can be determined from InSAR data in west-central Florida. We are working to identify spatial patterns in subsidence data to determine whether InSAR-derived subsidence can be reliably related to sinkhole processes. We model sinkhole deformation to assess conditions that could exist at sites with mapped subsidence rates of 3-10 mm/yr.

    Image from T. Oliver-Cabrera et al., submitted

    Oliver-Cabrera, T., S. Wdowinski, S. Kruse, T. Robinson, Detection of Sinkhole Activity in West-Central Florida Using InSAR Time Series Observations, in review, Geomorphology.

    T. Robinson, C. Downs, T. Oliver-Cabrera, B. Zhang, S. Kruse, S. Wdowinski, Relationships between sinkhole-related features and InSAR-detected subsidence points in west-central Florida. In: Proceedings Of the 16th Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst.2020. In Review.



  • Full-Waveform Inversion and advanced imaging of GPR data:: Post-doc Sajad Jazayeri combines two open source packages PEST and gprMax to perform state-of-the-art full-waveform inversion on GPR profiles to model subsurface and extract critical information on target properties. Moreover, He develops advanced imaging techniques such as blind deconvolution algorithms for geophysical time series. Such algorithms have wide application in resolution enhancement, denoising and wavelet extraction. Sajad and post-doc Christine Downs are developing joint singular value decomposition and deconvolution strategies for GPR data.

    Full-Waveform Inversion applied to GPR data to improve resolution of targets in engineering applications.

    Full-Waveform Inversion Method on GPR data to improve the applicability of geophysics in engineering applications.

    S. Jazayeri, S. Kruse, M. Hassan, N. Yazdani. (2019). Reinforced Concrete Mapping Using Full-Waveform Inver- sion of GPR Data. In: Construction and Building Materials, Elsevier, Vol. 229, 30 December 2019, 117102. DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.117102

    S. Jazayeri, N. Kazemi, S. Kruse. (2019). Sparse Blind Deconvolution of Ground Penetrating Radar data. In: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 57 , Issue 6, pp. 3703-3712. DOI: 10.1109/TGRS.2018.2886741

    S. Jazayeri, A. Klotzsche and S. Kruse. (2018). Improving estimates of buried pipe diameter and infilling material from ground-penetrating radar profiles with full-waveform inversion. In: Geophysics, 83(4), H27-H41. DOI: 10.1190/geo2017-0617.1

    Downs Christine M., and Sajad Jazayeri. "Enhanced Ground Penetrating Imaging of Historic Graves Using Eigenimages and Reflectivity Models." AGU Fall Meeting 2019. AGU, 2019.

    S. Jazayeri, S. Kruse. (2018). Automating Procedures in Initiating a Full Waveform Inversion Process of GPR data, Abstract (NS31B-0749) AGU Fall Meeting 2018, Washington, DC., 10–14 Dec.

    S. Jazayeri, S. Kruse, I. Hasan and N. Yazdani. (2018). Sparse Blind Deconvolution and Full-Waveform Inversion of Surface GPR Data, an Engineering Example. In: SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2018. pp. 5482-5486.

    S. Jazayeri, S. Kruse. (2017). Development of FWI4GPR, an open-source package for full-waveform inversion of common-offset GPR data, Abstract (NS41B-0011) AGU Fall Meeting 2017, New Orleans, LA., 11–15 Dec.

    S. Jazayeri, A. Ebrahimi and S. Kruse. (2017). Sparse Blind Deconvolution of Common-offset GPR data. In: SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2017. pp. 5140–5145. doi:10.1190/segam2017-17791251.1

    S. Jazayeri, and S. Kruse. (2016). Full-waveform inversion of ground penetrating radar (GPR) data using PEST (FWI-PEST method) applied to utility detection. In: SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2016. pp. 2474-2478.doi:10.1190/segam2016-13878165.1

    S. Jazayeri, S. Kruse, S. Esmaeili. (2015). Inversion of Attributes and Full Waveforms of Ground Penetrat- ing Radar Data Using PEST, Abstract (NS41B-1941) AGU Fall Meeting 2015, San Francisco., 14–18 Dec. doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.4810.2480



  • Sandhill wetland hydrogeology: Post-doc Christine Downs worked with ReNae Nowicki and Mark Rains from the Ecohydrology Research Group to understand the hydrogeologic framework of sandhill wetlands. Our contribution is the acquisition, processing, and interpretation of GPR and seismic data from 5 wetland sites in west-central Florida. This work was funded by the Southwest Florida Water Management District.

    Christine Downs and Sajad Jazayeri configuring the GPR before floating it over a wetland pool.

    Downs, Christine, Nowicki, ReNae, Jazayeri, Sajad, Assessment of Hydrogeological Controls on Sandhill Wetlands in Covered Karst Using Ground Penetrating Radar. FastTIMES, v. 22, n. 1, p. 43–51.

    Nowicki, ReNae, Downs, Christine, Rains, Mark, Kruse, Sarah, 2016, Assistance to Develop Methods for the Ecohydrologic Classification and Assessment of Northern Tampa Bay and Northern District Sandhill and Xeric Wetland and Lake Types. Southwest Florida Water Management District Technical Report.

    Downs, Christine M., Nowicki, ReNae S., Rains, Mark C., Kruse, Sarah, Investigating Hydrogeologic Controls on Sandhill Wetlands in Covered Karst with 2D Resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar. AGU Fall Meeting 2015, San Fransisco, CA, December 15, 2015.



  • Understanding EM response in high conductivity (hypersaline) wetlands: Post-doc Christine Downs with Chet Weiss (Sandia Labs). We are using Chet Weiss' APhiD code to assess the resolution capabilities of EM-31 and EM-34 data for detecting hydrogeologically significant layers in mangrove wetlands.

    Current density from example APhiD numerical results for a simulated EM-31 profile— inline, horizontal dipole at ground height— over a lateral conductivity boundary.

    Comparing the normalized EM response over a variety of conductivity boundaries representative of coastal wetland environments. Simulated EM-31 profiles normalized to their respective range of values. Instrument geometry is the same— vertical dipole at ground height— for inline profiles (solid lines) and transverse profiles (dashed lines)

    Downs, Christine, Weiss, Chester, Kruse, Sarah, “Forward Models to Guide Interpretations of EMI Data in Highly Conductive Environments.” In preparation.

    Weiss, Chester J., Christine M. Downs, and Bart VanBloemenWaanders. "The Unstructured APhiD: A Finite Element Formulation of Maxwell’s Equations Using Lorenz-Gauged Potentials." AGU Fall Meeting 2019. AGU, 2019.

    Rains, Mark C., Downs, Christine M., Kruse, Sarah, Weiss, Chester J., Testing the Feasibility of Imaging a Complex, Highly Conductive Environment with Field Instruments via a Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic Induction Forward Solver, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, December 12, 2016, San Francisco, CA.

    Downs, Christine M., Kruse, Sarah E., Rains, Mark C., Interpreting EM Data In a Complex and Highly Conductive Environment Through Forward Modeling, NovCare: Novel Method in Subsurface Characterization, May 19, 2015, Lawrence, KS.



  • Geoelectric monitoring of saline groundwater in a mangrove forest through time-lapse electrical resistivity: Christine Downs conducted a series of 2D resistivity surveys in a mangrove forest in east-central Florida over one diel (24-hour) period. Spatiotemporal changes in resistivity reflect changes in porewater salinity and degrees of saturation.

    Time-lapse inversion result for a single survey. Results are presented as percent difference from the previous time step to remove the signature of static geologic and biologic features. A negative difference is a decrease in resistivity (increase in conductivity) from one survey to the next.

    Downs, Christine, Sarah, Kruse, Ken Krauss. “Time-lapse electric resistivity imaging subsurface salt mobilization in an impounded mangrove forest.” Near Surface Geophysics. In preparation.

    Downs, Christine M., Krauss, Ken, Kruse, Sarah, Time-lapse Electric Resistivity In a Stressed Mangrove Forest to Image the Role of the Root Zone in Porewater Salt Distribution: American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, December 11, 2017. AGU–SEG Hydrogeophysics Workshop, July 26, 2017, Stanford University, CA.



Other Projects

  • Imaging and monitoring a cover-collapse sinkhole: In collaboration with the USF Digital Heritage & Humanities Collection and USF Water Research Institute. We collected terrestrial LiDAR, drone-based structure-from-motion photogrammetry, bathymetry, and GPR data to image the surface and subsurface features immediately surrounding a cover-collapse sinkhole in west-central Florida. Repeat surveys are analyzed to detect small-scale changes in land elevation.

    Array of targets used in terrestrial LiDAR acquisition.

    C. Downs, T. Robinson, G. Speed, J. Gonzalez Garcia, N. Garcia, L. Collins, T. Doering, S. Landry, D. Eilers, S. Jazayeri, S. Esmaeili, S. Kruse, H. Kiflu. (2019). Spatial and Temporal Imaging of a Cover-collapse SInkhole in West-Central Florida Through High Resolution Remote Sensing and Geophysical Techniques. In: Proceedings Of the 16th Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst. Under-Review.



  • Structure of cinder cones at Craters of the Moon and volcanic features at Medicine Lake:: With PhD Lis Gallant, PhD student Danielle Molisee and undergraduate Luke Varner. We use GPR to image cone stratigraphy, which gives us information about the thickness of deposits, the presence of ballistics within these deposits, and any structures associated with emplacement.

    Luke Varner and students from the 2019 Field Geophysics course running a GPR line over Inferno cone, Craters of the Moon National Monument.


  • Ice Volume in Scarisoara Ice Cave: Jackson Hubbard with Bogdan Onac. We are compiling a grid of GPR profiles with a total station to determine the volume of ice in Scarisoara Cave in Romania.

  • Mapping faults in Crater Lake National Park: With Charlie Bacon, Joel Robinson, Judy McIlrath, and Lis Gallant. We are processing and interpreting GPR profiles over faults that pre-date (but by how much?) the climactic 7.7 ka Crater Lake eruption.

    Hiking with equipment to the field area.


  • Developing a toolkit to boost introductory geophysics and geophysics instruction: PhD student Sanaz Esmaeili with Charly Bank, Ophelia George, Konstantinos Papadimitrios, Eva Zhang, Alexander Cadmus. We are developing a software toolkit which fills a critical void in educational materials necessary to achieve key geophysics learning outcomes. This work is funded by MathWorks.



  • Resistivity imaging with buried electrode arrays: Former student Henok Kiflu with David Harro, M.H. Loke, and Paul Wilkinson. Resistivity imaging suffers from lack of resolution at depth and at the ends of resistivity arrays at sites where access restricts the length of a resistivity profile. This group has worked to develop and assess methods for improving resistivity imaging with a buried electrode array beneath 2D or 3D surface arrays.

    Kiflu, H., S. Kruse, M.H. Loke, P. Wilkinson, and D. Harro, Improving resistivity survey resolution at sites with limited spatial extent through buried electrode arrays, accepted, Journal of Applied Geophysics. link



Near-Surface Geophysics Group Patents

S. Jazayeri, S. Kruse. (2019). Precise Infrastructure Mapping Using Full-Waveform Inversion of Radar Signals. Filed Jun 27, 2018, United States Patent and Trademark Office, Non-Provisional patent number: 10,234,552 (Grant date March 19 2019), Apl. No.: 16/020,65.



Near-Surface Geophysics Publications

S. Esmaeili, S. Kruse, S. Jazayeri, P. Whelley, E. Bell, J. Richardson, W. B. Garry, K. Young. (–). Resolution of Lava Tubes with Ground Penetrating Radar: TubeX project. In: Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets. In Review.

C. Downs, T. Robinson, G. Speed, J. Gonzalez Garcia, N. Garcia, L. Collins, T. Doering, S. Landry, D. Eilers, S. Jazayeri, S. Esmaeili, S. Kruse, H. Kiflu. (2019). Spatial and Temporal Imaging of a Cover-collapse SInkhole in West-Central Florida Through High Resolution Remote Sensing and Geophysical Techniques. In: Proceedings Of the 16th Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst. In Review.

S. Jazayeri, S. Kruse, M. Hassan, N. Yazdani. (2019). Reinforced Concrete Mapping Using Full-Waveform Inversion of GPR Data. In: Construction and Building Materials, Elsevier, Vol. 229, 30 December 2019, 117102. DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.117102

S. Jazayeri, N. Kazemi, S. Kruse. (2019). Sparse Blind Deconvolution of Ground Penetrating Radar data. In: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 57 , Issue 6, pp. 3703-3712. DOI: 10.1109/TGRS.2018.2886741

S. Jazayeri, A. Klotzsche and S. Kruse. (2018). Improving estimates of buried pipe diameter and infilling material from ground-penetrating radar profiles with full-waveform inversion. In: Geophysics, 83(4), H27-H41. DOI: 10.1190/geo2017-0617.1

Wright, E., Kruse, S., Forman, S., and Harris, M. S., (2018). Millennial Scale Development of a Southeastern United States Spit. Journal of Coastal Research: Volume 34, Issue 2: pp. 255 – 271. link

Kiflu, H., S. Kruse, M.H. Loke, P. Wilkinson, and D. Harro. (2016). Improving resistivity survey resolution at sites with limited spatial extent through buried electrode arrays, Journal of Applied Geophysics, 135, 338-355.

Ammar, A.I., and S.E. Kruse, Resistivity Soundings and VLF Profiles for Siting Groundwater Wells in a Fractured Basement Aquifer in the Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia, Journal of African Earth Sciences, 116, 56-67, 2016.

Loke, M.H., H. Kiflu, P.B. Wilkinson, D. Harro, and S. Kruse, Optimized arrays for 2-D resistivity surveys with combined surface and deep arrays, Near Surface Geophysics,13,505-517, 2015.

Marshall, A., C. Connor, S. Kruse, R. Malservisi, J. Richardson, L. Courtland, L. Connor, J. Wilson, and M.A. Karegar, Subsurface structure of a maar-diatreme and associated tuff ring from a high-resolution geophysical survey, Rattlesnake Crater, Arizona, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 304, 253-264, 2015.

George, O.A., J. McIlrath, A. Farrell, E. Gallant, S. Tavarez, A. Marshall, C. McNiff, M. Njoroge, J. Wilson, C. Connor, L. Connor, and S. Kruse, High-Resolution Ground-Based Magnetic Survey of a Buried Volcano: Anomaly B, Amargosa Desert, NV, Statistics in Volcanology, 1, 1-23, 2015.

Bumpus, P., and S. Kruse, Self-potential monitoring for hydrological investigations in urban covered-karst terrain, Geophysics 79, B231-B242, 2014.

Ettinger, S., V. Manville, S. Kruse, and R. Paris, GPR-derived architecture of a lahar-generated fan at Cotopaxi volcano, Ecuador, Geomorphology, 213, 225-239, 2014.

Courtland, L., S. Kruse, and C. Connor, Violent Strombolian or not? Using ground-penetrating radar to distinguish deposits of low- and high-energy scoria cone eruptions, Bulletin of Volcanology, 75: 760, 13 p., 2013.

Montero, W., J. Lewis, J. Marshall, S. Kruse, and P. Wetmore, Neotectonic faulting and fore arc sliver motion along the Atirro-Rió Sucio fault system, Costa Rica, Central America, GSA Bulletin, 125, 857-876, 2013.

Mwashote, B. M., M. Murray, W.C. Burnett, J. Chanton, S. Kruse, and A. Forde, Submarine groundwater discharge in the Sarasota Bay system: Its assessment and implications for the nearshore coastal environment, Continental Shelf Research, 53, 63-76, 2013.

Kruse, S., Near-Surface Geophysics in Geomorphology. In: John F. Shroder (Editor-in-chief), Bishop, M.P. (Volume Editor). Treatise on Geomorphology, Vol 3, Remote Sensing and GIScience in Geomorphology, San Diego: Academic Press; 2013. p. 103-129.

van Gaalen, J. F., S. Kruse, W. B. Lafrenz and S. M. Burroughs, Predicting water table response to rainfall events, Central Florida, Ground Water, 51 (3), 350-362, doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6584.2012.00970.x, 2013.

Courtland, L.M., S.E. Kruse, C.B. Connor, L.J. Connor, and I.P. Savov, GPR investigation of tephra fallout, Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua; a method for constraining parameters used in tephra sedimentation models, Bulletin of Volcanology, 74, 1409-1424, 2012.

van Gaalen, J., S. Kruse, G. Coco, L. Collins, and T. Doering, Observations of beach cusp evolution at Melbourne Beach, Florida, USA, Geomorphology, 129,131-140, 2011.

Kruse, S., R. Mora, C. Ramirez, and G. Alvarado, Ground penetrating radar imaging of tephra stratigraphy on Poás and Irazú volcanoes, Costa Rica, Revista Geológica de América Central, 43, 119-136, 2010.

Stringer, C.E., M.C. Rains, S. Kruse, and D. Whigham, Controls on water levels and salinity in a barrier island mangrove, Indian River Lagoon, Florida, Wetlands, 30, 725-734, DOI 10.1007/s13157-010-0072-4, 2010.

Hickey, T.D., Hine, A.C., Shinn, E.A., Cunningham, K.J., Kruse, S.E., and Poore, R.Z., Pleistocene carbonate stratigraphy of south Florida: evidence for high-frequency sea-level cyclicity, Journal of Coastal Research, 264,605-614, DOI: 10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-09-00052.1, 2010.

Diez, M., C. B. Connor, S.E. Kruse, L. Connor, and I.P. Savov, Evidence of small-volume igneous diapirism in the shallow crust of the Colorado Plateau, San Rafael desert, Utah, Lithosphere, 2009, 1, 328-336, doi:10.1130/L61, 2009.

Wetmore, P. H., C. B. Connor, S. E. Kruse, S. Callihan, G. Pignotta, C. Stremtan, and A. Burke, Geometry of the Trachyte Mesa intrusion, Henry Mountains, Utah: Implications for the emplacement of small melt volumes into the upper crust, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 10, 8, doi:10.1029/2009GC002469, 2009.

van Gaalen, J.F., S.E. Kruse, S.M. Burroughs, and G. Coco, Time-frequency methods for characterizing cuspate landforms in Lidar data, Journal of Coastal Research, 25(3), 1143-1148, 2009.

Guha, S., S. Kruse, and P. Wang, Joint time-frequency analysis of GPR data over layered sequences, The Leading Edge, 27 (11), 1454-1460, 2008.

Swarzenski, P.W., F.W. Simonds, A.J. Paulson, S. Kruse, and C. Reich, Geochemical and geophysical examination of submarine groundwater discharge and associated nutrient loading estimates into Lynch Cove, Hood Canal, WA, Environ. Sci. & Technol, 41(20), 7022-7029, 2007.

Montero, W. and S. Kruse, Neotectónica y geofísica de la Falla Aguacaliente en los valles de Coris y de El Guarco, Revista Geológica de América Central, 34-35, 43-58, 2006.

Denyer, P., G. Cárdenes, and S. Kruse, Registro histórico y evolución de la barra arenosa de Puntarenas, Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica, Revista Geológica de América Central, 31, 45-59, 2006.

Kruse, S., M. Grasmueck, M. Weiss, and D. Viggiano, Sinkhole structure imaging in covered karst terrain, Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L16405, doi:10.1029/2006GL026975, 2006.

Guha, S., S.E. Kruse, E.E. Wright, and U.E. Kruse, Spectral analysis of ground penetrating radar response to thin sedimentary layers, Geophysical Research Letters, 32, L23304, doi:10.1029/2005GL023933, 2005.

Greenwood, W.J., S.E. Kruse, and P. Swarzenski, Extending electromagnetic methods to map coastal pore water salinities, Groundwater, doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6584.2005.00137.x, 2005.

Schneider, J.A. and S.E. Kruse, Assessing natural and anthropogenic impacts on freshwater lens morphology on small barrier islands: Dog Island and St. George Island, Florida, Hydrogeology Journal, 14, 131-145, doi 10.1007/s10040-005-0442-9, 2005.

Moore, L.J., H.M. Jol, S. Kruse, S. Vandenburgh, and G. Kaminsky, Annual layers revealed by GPR in the subsurface of a prograding coastal barrier, southwest Washington, U.S.A., J. Sedimentary Research, 74(5), 690-696, 2004.

Meadows, D.G., J. P. Caballero, S. E. Kruse, and H. L. Vacher., Variation of salinity in brackish-water lenses of two Florida Keys, Journal of Coastal Geology, 20(2), 386-400, 2004.

Peterson, V., S. Yurkovich, J. Burr, J. Ryan, and S. Kruse, A collaborative field-laboratory summer Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program in geosciences, Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly, 24, 1, 13-17, 2003.

Schneider, J.A. and S.E. Kruse, A comparison of controls on freshwater lens morphology of small carbonate and siliciclastic islands: Examples from barrier islands in Florida, USA, Journal of Hydrology, 284, 253-269, 2003.

Kruse, S.E. and H.M. Jol, Amplitude analysis of repetitive GPR reflections on a Lake Bonneville delta, Utah, in Ground Penetrating Radar in Sediments, Bristow, C.S. and Jol, H.M. (eds), Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 211, 287-298, 2003.

Kruse, S.E., S.F. Tebbens, D.F. Naar, Q. Lou, and R.T. Bird, Comparisons of gravity anomalies from pseudofaults, fracture zones, and nontransform discontinuities from fast to slow spreading areas, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 28,399-28,410, 2000.

Ruppel, C., G. Schultz, and S. Kruse, Anomalous fresh water lens morphology on a strip barrier island, Ground Water, 38, 872-881, 2000.

Kruse, S.E., J.C. Schneider, D.J. Campagna, J.A. Inman, and T.D. Hickey, Ground penetrating radar imaging of cap rock, caliche and carbonate strata, Journal of Applied Geophysics, 43, 239-249, 2000.

Kruse, S., M. Brudzinski, and T. Geib, Use of electrical and electromagnetic techniques to map seawater intrusion near the Cross-Florida Barge Canal, Environmental & Engineering Geoscience, 4, 331-340, 1998.

Johnson, G.H., S.E. Kruse, A.W. Vaughn, J.K. Lucey, C.H. Hobbs III, and D.S. Powars, Post-impact deformation associated with the late Eocene Chesapeake Bay impact structure in southeastern Virginia, Geology, 26, 507-510, 1998.

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