Program

List of Participants:
John Anderson, R. K. Mellon University Professor of Psychology and Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University.
  Harry Bahrick, Research Professor of Psychology,Helen Whitelaw Jackson University Professor.
  David Balota, Professor of Psychology and Neurology, Washington University.
  Robert Bjork, Distinguished Professor of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles.
  Jerry Busemeyer, Professor of Psychology, Indiana University.
  Simon Dennis, Associate Professor of Psychology, Ohio State University.
  Mike Humphreys, The University of Queensland
  Marc Howard, Associate Professor of Psychology, Syracuse University.
  Larry Jacoby, Professor of Psychology, Washington University.
  Jim Jenkins, Professor Emeritus, University of South Florida.
  Elizabeth Loftus, Distinguished Professor of Psychology, University of California Irvine.
  Bill Maki, Professor of Psychology, Texas Tech University.
  Angela Nelson, Indiana University.
  Roddy Roediger, James S. McDonnell Distinguished University Professor, Washington University.
  Lili Sahakyan, Assistant Professor of Psychology, University of North Carolina Greensboro.
  Mark Steyvers, Associate Professor of Cognitive Sciences, University of California Irvine.
  Rene Zeelenberg, Associate Professor of Psychology, Erasmus University.
   

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Program

Presentation
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Speakers
Friday, March 21
Location: Ted & Marty Couch Auditorium
Perspectives on Memory
Opening Remarks, Emanuel Donchin, Chair, Department of Psychology
 
Introduction by Ken Malmberg, University of South Florida


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John Anderson, Carnegie Mellon University
The Role of Declarative Memory in a Cognitive Architecture
Abstract: Declarative memories play a central role in a cognitive architecture because they have the flexibility to be used for many purposes. Unfortunately, there are severe limitations on our ability to maintain memories in such a highly flexible form. Our declarative system responds to these limits by trying to make most available those memories that are most likely to be needed. In the ACT-R cognitive architecture, the momentary activation of a memory reflects the likelihood that it will be needed. I will review behavioral and brain imaging data in support of the ACT-R analysis of the interactions between frequency, recency, and associative strength in memory. In a cognitive architecture like ACT-R, the declarative system is important not just to memory tasks but has a pervasive influence on all cognitive phenomena. I will conclude by discussing its role in heuristic judgements.

 
Introduction by Ken Malmberg, University of South Florida
 
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Elizabeth Loftus, University of California, Irvine
What's the Matter with Memory?
Abstract: For at least a century, scientists have demonstrated the tricks memory can play. More recently they have shown that people can be led to develop entire memories for events that never happened; i.e., "Rich false memories." In that vein, people have been led to remember nonexistent events from the recent past as well as non-existent events from their childhood. People can be led to falsely believe that they have had familiar experiences, but also rather bizarre or implausible ones. They can be led to believe that they did things that would have been impossible (e.g., shaking hands with Bugs Bunny during a trip to Disneyland). They can be led to falsely believe that they had experiences that would have been rather traumatic had they actually happened. False memories, like true ones, also have consequences for people, affecting later thoughts, intentions, and behaviors. For example, people who are led to believe that as children they got sick eating particular foods show avoidance of those foods later on. False memories can be planted for events that would have been highly emotional had they occurred, and attempts to distinguish them from true ones show few differences. If false memories can be so readily planted in the mind, what does it say about the nature of memory?

 
Break
 
Introduction by Ken Malmberg, University of South Florida
 
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Robert Bjork, University of California, Los Angeles
Interpreting One's Subjective Experience: Heuristics and Biases
Abstract: Our judgments about the objective nature of perceptions and memories are heavily influenced by subjective indices, such as perceptual fluency and retrieval fluency. The familiarity or ease that accompanies perception affects our assessment of whether perceived information is understood and how readily information "comes to mind" affects our judgments of its accuracy and the likelihood it will be recallable again in the future. Such indices are useful heuristics: Information that has been presented frequently and/or well learned in the past will tend to be perceived or retrieved fluently. Fluency or familiarity can also, however, be a product of factors unrelated to veridicality or learning-as, for example, when the re-reading of text is made more fluent via stimulus-driven priming, rather than by comprehension. In this paper, I extend the argument to ease of association, a domain in which Professor Douglas Nelson has made seminal contributions, and I summarize the causes and consequences of misinterpreting such subjective experiences, including illusions of comprehension, foresight bias, and failing to communicate effectively.
 
Introduction by Ken Malmberg, University of South Florida
 
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Larry Jacoby, Washington University
Aging and Cognitive Control: Basic Research and Speculations on a Single Case History
Abstract: Older adults sometimes show strikingly high false memory and false perception. These tendencies can be understood as resulting from a decline in cognitive control. In the absence of cognitive control, automatic influences of memory can mislead subjective experience, producing false remembering and false perceiving, and result in costly errors. Cognitive control can be achieved in two ways: By constraining retrieval such that only sought after information comes to mind (goal-constrained access) or, alternatively, by means of post-access monitoring. We have examined age differences in the contributions of these two modes of cognitive control. Doing so is important for the development of better means of diagnosing and treating memory deficits shown by older adults. I end by considering the case of Doug Nelson, asking whether his deficient cognitive control reflects aging effects and speculating about the possibility of rehabilitation
 
Post Dinner Musings presented by Mark Goldman, Distinguished Research Professor, University of South Florida
Reception
Location: Stabile Research Building Atrium
Dinner
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Location: Stabile Research Building Atrium (seating begins @ 7pm)

Followed by: Post Dinner Musings initiated by Roddy Roediger, Washington University.

Colleagues reflecting on Doug include Harry Bahrick.

Saturday, March 22
Location: All panel discussions will be held in the David J. Murphey Conference Room
Panel Discussions
Panel 1: What in the World can Tell Us What we Will Remember?
Abstract: Almost everyone has difficulty remembering past events; just ask your spouse. What factors influence our ability to remember events that we have experienced? In recent years Rational Theories of the mind have become quite influential. A basic assumption underlying the Rational Theory is that memory plays a key role in allowing the mind to adapt to its environment over one's lifetime by representing the statistical properties of its environment (J. R. Anderson, 1991; J. R. Anderson & Schooler, 1991). In this session, leading memory researchers will discuss research that indicates that our memory systems are really models of our world, and hence understanding the structure of the world can help us to predict what we will remember in the future.
 
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Panel Chair: David Balota (Professor of Psychology and Neurology, Washington University)
 
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Member: Mark Steyvers (Associate Professor of Cognitive Sciences, University of California, Irvine)
 
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Member: Angela Nelson (Indiana University)
Papers
REM-II: A Model of the Developmental Co-Evolution of Episodic Memory and Semantic Knowledge
 
Panel 2: Do We Always "Know" What We Remember?: The Influence of the Conscious and Subconscious on Memory.
Abstract: Since the earliest days of memory research (Ebbinghaus, 1885), memory has been thought to be influenced by conscious and subconscious influences. Indeed, the interaction between these levels of awareness has long been thought to provide an explanation for our stated reasons for behaving the way we do and the actual reasons for our behavior (e.g., Freud, 1911; Nisbett & Wilson, 1977, etc.). In this session, an international panel of experts will provide a discussion of their cutting edge research that addresses how our memories are affected by conscious and subconscious factors.
 
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Panel Chair: Mike Humphreys (Professor of Psychology, University of Queensland)
 
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Member: Bill Maki (Professor of Psychology, Texas Tech University)
 
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Member: Lili Sahakyan (Assistant Professor of Psychology, University of North Carolina, Greensboro)
 
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Member: Rene Zeelenberg (Associate Professor of Psychology, Erasmus University)
Sample Papers
Encoding specificity manipulations do affect retrieval from memory
Semantic context effects and priming in word associations
Priming in a free association task as a function of association directionality
 
Break for Lunch
 
Panel 3: Can We Predict How Well We Will Remember in the Future?
Abstract: We have seen in the prior presentations that remembering involves an interaction between our knowledge about the world and our representations of what we have actually experienced. However, this interaction is so complex that understanding it does not readily lend itself to intuition or casual reasoning. A crowning achievement has been the development of formal models designed to predict how well we will remember in novel situations in the future. Indeed, the hallmark of Doug Nelson's career has been development of PEIR, one of the first models of interaction of explicit and implicit memory phenomena. In this session, we look to the future and some of the latest ways in which memory researchers think about human memory past, present, and in the future.
 
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Panel Chair: Jerry Busemeyer (Professor of Psychology, Indiana University)
 
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Member: Simon Dennis (Associate Professor of Psychology, Ohio State University)
 
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Member: Marc Howard (Associate Professor of Psychology, Syracuse University)